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  • Humans have 23 pairs of these structures, a dog has 78 total.
  • A chromosome is created when DNA twists and coils around a histone protein.
  • Inside the nucleus of each cell is found a long strand of DNA.
  • This DNA is very long, and in fact if you stretched the DNA out it would be around 5 feet in length.
  • A chromosome allows the cell to fit all of this genetic material into the nucleus.
  • A chromosome consists of a diploid cell consists of two sister chromatids joined together by a centromere.
  • Each side of the sister chromatids has the same genetic information as the other sister chromatid.
  • During mitosis the spindle fibers attach to the centromere.
  • The main job of the centromere is to serve as a place of attachment for spindle fibers during cell division. 
  • In addition to the sister chromatids, you also have homologous chromosomes. 
  • Homologous chromosomes have the same genes,but different alleles or copies of the genes.
  • You get one homologous chromosome from mom and one from dad. 
  • This is one reason why you look a little like mom and dad, but not exactly.

What is a chromosome?



Chromsome Facts